Abbreviation Key:AHA (American Heart Association), AP (Antibiotic prophylaxis), CDT (American Dental Association Code on Dental Procedures and Nomenclature), ICD-9-CM (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification), IE (Infective endocarditis), NA (Not applicable)
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Disclosures. Drs. Thornhill, Gibson, Lockhart, and O’Gara received support from the Delta Dental Research and Data Institute for the submitted work. Dr. O'Gara received support from Medtronic, Edwards Scientific, and the National Heart Lung Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, which was unconnected to the submitted work. Dr. Dayer received reports from Biotronik, which was unconnected to the submitted work. None of the other authors reported financial relationships with companies that might have an interest in the submitted work. Drs. Thornhill, Gibson, Durkin, and O’Gara have no nonfinancial interests that might be relevant to the submitted work. Dr. Lockhart is a member of the Writing Committee for the next American Heart Association’s guidelines on antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent infective endocarditis. Drs. Baddour and Lockhart were members of the American Heart Association’s Committee on Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis and Kawasaki Disease and were involved in producing the 2007 American Heart Association guideline on prevention of infective endocarditis. Dr. Dayer was a consultant to the review committee that produced the 2015 update to National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (UK) clinical guideline 64 on prophylaxis against infective endocarditis.
This study was funded by a research grant from Delta Dental of Michigan and its Research and Data Institute. The funding source had no role in the study design, collection, analysis or interpretation of the data, in the writing of the report, or in the decision to submit the article for publication.
The authors acknowledge the indispensable free advice, comments, and assistance of several colleagues in general and specialty dental practice in regard to matters of dental practice and coding. In particular, they wish to acknowledge the assistance of Dr. Richard Potter and colleagues of the Texas Dental Association 20th District, San Antonio District Dental Society, Dr. Julianne K. Ruppel (Ruppel Orthodontics, St. Louis, MO), Dr. Thomas Paumier (general dentist, Ohio), Dr. Jeffery Johnston (Delta Dental of Michigan, Ohio, and Indiana), and Dr. Jed Jacobson (Ann Arbor, MI). Although they provided invaluable advice to the research team, their views might not reflect any views expressed in this article.